Responsive UI

Responsive layouts in Material Design adapt to any possible screen size.


For optimal user experience, material design interfaces need to be able to adapt their layout at various breakpoints. Material-UI uses a simplified implementation of the original specification.

Each breakpoint matches with a fixed screen width:

  • xs, extra-small: 0px or larger
  • sm, small: 600px or larger
  • md, medium: 960px or larger
  • lg, large: 1280px or larger
  • xl, xlarge: 1920px or larger

These values can always be customized. You will find them in the theme, in the breakpoints.values object.

The breakpoints are used internally in various components to make them responsive, but you can also take advantage of them for controlling the layout of your application through the Grid and Hidden components.


Several Material-UI components utilize z-index, the CSS property that helps control layout by providing a third axis to arrange content. We utilize a default z-index scale in Material-UI that's been designed to properly layer drawers, modals, snackbars, tooltips, and more.

These values start at an arbitrary number, high and specific enough to ideally avoid conflicts.

  • mobile stepper: 1000
  • app bar: 1100
  • drawer: 1200
  • modal: 1300
  • snackbar: 1400
  • tooltip: 1500

These values can always be customized. You will find them in the theme under the zIndex key. We don’t encourage customization of individual values; should you change one, you likely need to change them all.