Progress and activity indicators are visual indications of an app loading content.

A single visual indicator should be used to represent each type of operation. For example, a refresh operation should display either a refresh bar or an activity circle, but not both.

Determinate indicators display how long an operation will take.

Indeterminate indicators visualize an unspecified wait time.


Circular progress support both determinate and indeterminate processes.

  • Determinate circular indicators fill the invisible, circular track with color, as the indicator moves from 0 to 360 degrees.
  • Indeterminate circular indicators grow and shrink in size while moving along the invisible track.

Circular Indeterminate

Interactive Integration

Circular Determinate

Circular Static


Linear progress indicators.

Linear Indeterminate

Linear Determinate

Linear Buffer

Linear Query

Non-standard ranges

The progress components accept a value in the range 0 - 100. This simplifies things for screen-reader users, where these are the default min / max values. Sometimes, however, you might be working with a data source where the values fall outside this range. Here's how you can easily transform a value in any range to a scale of 0 - 100:

const MIN = x; // Minimum expected value
const MAX = y; // Maximium expected value

// Function to normalise the values (MIN / MAX could be integrated)
const normalise = value => (value - MIN) * (MAX - MIN);

// Example component that utilizes the `normalise` function at the point of render.
function Progress(props) {
  return (
      <CircularProgress variant="determinate" value={normalise(props.value)} />
      <LinearProgress variant="determinate" value={normalise(props.value)} />

Delaying appearance

There are 3 important limits to know around response time. The ripple effect of the ButtonBase component ensures that the user feels that the system is reacting instantaneously. Normally, no special feedback is necessary during delays of more than 0.1 but less than 1.0 second. After 1.0 second, you can display a loader to keep user's flow of thought uninterrupted.